When writer Benjamin Hoff published the Tao of the bear in 1982, using AA Mine’s famous adventurous stuffed animal stories to illustrate the tenets of Taoism, he agreed to pay the Milne Estate one-third hardcover and 40 percent of paperback profits. In early 2022, any other writer who wanted to reuse some of Pooh’s original stories wouldn’t need to make this kind of deal. Like many other works first published in 1926, the original Winnie the Pooh enters the U.S. public domain on January 1.
As Duke University Law School Public domain study center Explain, copyrighted books, movies, and songs from that year, as well as sound recordings from 1923 or before, become available to be shared, reused, and remixed without permission or charge. This means that Ernest Hemingway The sun is also rising, silent films with Buster Keaton and Greta Garbo, and collections of poems by Langston Hughes and Dorothy Parker are available for anyone who wishes to make them available to others or use them in their own original work.
While copyright laws in many countries allow works to enter the public domain 70 years after the death of their creator, in the United States a 1998 law states that most go public 95 years after their creation. The implementation of the law resulted in a gap in works entering the public domain between 1998 and 2019.
Since then, new books, films and written music have arrived every year, allowing the creation of various versions of classics. For example, according to F. Scott Fitzgerald Gatsby the magnificent entered the public domain last year, the creators invented a graphic novel adaptation, one version of the story in which Gatsby is a vampire and another told from the perspective of Jordan Baker’s character, reimagined as one rich Vietnamese-American woman, reported Alison Flood for the Guardian. The musicians also reused a variety of compositions, including 1920s jazz and blues, in creative ways.
“These works will continue to be reimagined in an unimaginable way on instrumental supports or multimedia platforms”, James gordon williams, musician and African American studies researcher at Syracuse University, said Smithsonian reviewed last year. “The world has changed, so music will be reframed to tell the truth about our lives today.”
2022 also marks the first time that the first sound recordings will be available under a 2018 law called the Music Modernization Act. Part of the law allows many recordings made before 1972 to be protected against unauthorized use for 95 years after their first publication. It also makes all recordings made before 1924 accessible to the public from 2022. Before the adoption of the law, the first sound recordings would not have fallen into the public domain. until 2047.
The Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC) Note that an estimated 400,000 records enter the public domain, and he has assembled a list of notable examples. They include songs like “Crazy blues“from Mamie Smith and her jazz dogs (1920),” by Scott JoplinMaple Leaf Cloth, performed by Vess L. Ossman in 1907 and interpretations of the First World War hymn “Over There” by Nora goodbye and Enrico Caruso. Also on the list are recordings of suffragette political speeches Gertrude Foster Brown and African-American intellectual Booker T. Washington.
Here is a sample of works from 1926 entering the public domain in 2022:
Winnie the Pooh: Long before Pooh became a Disney star, he and his fellow stuffed animals first appeared in AA Milne’s Words and Ernest H. Shepard’s Art. Write in the Guardian in 2016, Sarah Burnside noted that while the stories are often seen as overly sentimental, they contain subtle humor suitable for both adults and children, such as the phrase “‘Pooh,’ said Rabbit gently, ‘you don’t have a brain. ”
âFrom reading books when I was a little child, I learned that something can be said nicely but still be mean; that anything that is said “recklessly” is probably anything but; that people who pride themselves on their intelligence just might not be so smart, âBurnside wrote.
As Namera Tanjeem writes at Book Riot, there was also a “slight dark side” to Pooh’s story. Milne’s son Christopher Robin, the inspiration for Pooh’s human friend, came to despise the work he inspired. His portrayal in his father’s writings led to bullying at his public school. “It almost seemed to me that my father had gotten to where he was by climbing on my childish shoulders, that he had stolen my name from me and left me with the empty glory of being his son”, complained. -he.
(Disney, however, still owns the copyright in the familiar color cartoon versions of Milne’s characters; the original text and artwork, however, will be free for reuse.)
The sun is also rising: Ernest Hemingway’s novel, his first, depicts American and British expatriates living in Paris in the 1920s. His cynical and drinkable characters helped define the Lost generation who came of age during WWI. The book also introduced many readers to Hemingway’s sparse prose style, which his fellow writer Virginia woolf described as creating an atmosphere “fine and crisp, like that of winter days when the branches are bare against the sky”.
Enough rope: The first collection of poems published by Dorothy Parker showcased the famous mind of the writer of the jazz era, bringing together the works she had published in Vanity Fair, the New Yorker and Life. Many poems confused clichÃ©s about romantic love, such as one titled âUnhappy Coincidenceâ:
The moment you swear you’re his
Shivering and sighing,
And he swears his passion is
Infinite, eternal –
Madam, note this:
One of you is lying.
The tired blues: Another early collection of poetry, this one by the great Renaissance writer of Harlem Langston Hughes, brings together works written to be performed with musical accompaniment in Harlem Clubs. The cash prize of several awards won by the collection enabled Hughes to complete his college education. Among the most famous poems in the collection are “The nigger talks about the rivers, “Dream variations,” and “Mother to sonâ, Which begins with the famous lines:
Well, my son, I will tell you:
Life for me has not been a crystal staircase.
There are bedbugs in it,
And torn planks,
And places without carpets on the floorâ
Combat butler: One of Buster Keaton’s greatest hits of the time, the silent film about a wealthy, decadent young man who ended up being forced to train as a boxer showcased Keaton’s signature physical humor as well as his abilities to director and editor. At San Francisco Silent Film Festival Site, Imogene Sara Smith writes that despite her own difficult upbringing and early career in singles slapstick, in her career as a solo star in the 1920s, Keaton excelled at playing protected men forced to stretch their abilities in difficult situations. . “The roles of the silver spoon suited his innate elegance and restraint, the innocence and pure-hearted gallantry that he projected onto the screen,” she writes.
The temptress: With Greta Garbo, the silent drama set in Paris and Argentina tells the story of a scandalous love triangle. When the film first came out, Mordaunt Hall wrote for the New York Times that Garbo “is not only remarkably well suited in the role, but with minimal movement and unusual restraint in her expressions, she makes every scene in which she appears revealing.”
Don Juan: This film was the first sound feature film, with a recorded musical soundtrack which marked the introduction of the Vitaphone reading system. However, there was no recorded dialogue. For this the public had to wait The jazz singer, which was created in 1927 and will enter the public domain in 2023.